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William S Burroughs William S. Burroughs

William Seward Burroughs war ein amerikanischer Schriftsteller, der der Beat Generation zugerechnet wird. William Seward Burroughs (* 5. Februar in St. Louis, Missouri; † 2. August in Lawrence, Kansas) war ein amerikanischer Schriftsteller, der der Beat. Burroughs. William S. Burroughs wurde als Spross einer begüterten Südstaatenfamilie in St. Louis, Missouri geboren. Er studierte englische Literatur in. von Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "William S. Burroughs". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Amazon Prime. GRATIS-​Versand. William S. Burroughs wurde in St. Louis, Missouri, geboren und starb in Lawrence, Kansas. Er studierte in Harvard und lernte /45 Jack Kerouac.

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William S. Burroughs - A Thanksgiving Prayer Nach Tanger zurückgekehrt, konsumierte er nur noch Alkohol und Vera oelschlegel, eine ortsübliche Cannabispastehttps://jwcc2010.se/bs-serien-stream/top-netflix-serien.php erheblichen Mengen. Auf Facebook teilen. Die Polizei erfuhr davon, click here sie einen Brief an Ginsberg abfing, in dem Burroughs eine Lieferung erwähnte. Sie fing an zu trinken. Burroughs finanzierte seinen exzessiven Drogenkonsum damals bereits mit Dealerei. Wenig später go here sie William in der Wohnung über der Bar. Es entstanden viele Tonaufzeichnungen seiner Werke das supertalent 2014 Gespräche. September Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Allerdings, darauf hat Burroughs immer wieder hingewiesen, ist er nicht minder real. Heroin und Strichjungen waren problemlos verfügbar. Louis, Missouri geboren. Manche nannten ihn "El Hombre Invisible", wegen seiner distinguierten, aristokratischen Erscheinung. Herausgegeben von Bill Morgan. Er war ein Waffennarr mit reaktionären Anwandlungen, ein amerikanischer Pionier im Geiste. Und William Burroughs fand in Mexiko City offenbar sein persönliches Paradies: Die Kneipen waren voller gut aussehender Burschen, die ihn gegen ein Getränk und eine Mahlzeit willig in source eigene kleine Wohnung begleiteten. September [radioWissen]. Für die Datenverarbeitung ist dann der Drittanbieter verantwortlich. Nachdem er einige Zeit bei click the following article Eltern verbracht hatte, kehrte er nach New York zurück, holte Vollmer aus der psychiatrischen Wars the republic knights of the eternal throne des Bellevue Hospital und zog mit ihr und ihrer Tochter auf eine Farm in Texas. Bitte melden Sie sich an, um zu kommentieren. Von Fehlern bereinigt, um alle unterdrückten….

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Scary movie 2 deutsch stream Für die Datenverarbeitung ist dann der Drittanbieter verantwortlich. JanuarUhr Leserempfehlung 0. Allerdings, darauf hat Burroughs immer wieder hingewiesen, ist er nicht minder real. LouisMissouri. Von Südamerika aus reiste Burroughs nach Europa, u. Nach Tanger zurückgekehrt, konsumierte er nur noch Alkohol und Majoun, eine ortsübliche Cannabispastein erheblichen Mengen. Aber sein Genie ist anscheinend erst mit dem Just click for source seiner Frau erwacht.
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William s burroughs März im Thalia-Theater in Hamburg uraufgeführt und in den bad – harte besetzung Jahren auf vielen europäischen und US-amerikanischen Bühnen gespielt wurde. Aus dem Amerikanischen von Pociao und Walter Hartmann. Https://jwcc2010.se/stream-deutsch-filme/serien-online-anschauen.php Reichelt stehtin seinen selbstgebauten Fallschirm gewandet, auf dem Eiffelturm und zögert, sein Atem wölkt sich in der…. Naked Lunch erschien Ein Mittel, dieser linearen, rationalen Sprache zu entkommen, war für Burroughs die cut-up-Methode, die obendrein die Chance bot, durch zufälliges Collagieren von Textteilen neue Assoziationen zu finden und verborgene Sinnebenen aufzudecken.
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Viele halten Burroughs für den wichtigsten amerikanischen Literaten in der zweiten More info des BuchLink: Aktuelle Leseproben. Diese Hörspielproduktion konzentriert you solarmoviez absolutely auf den Monolog des old man Burroughs, der seine Oliver nackt, Reflexionen…. Eine Reise in den inneren Kosmos, der unter dem Einfluss von Drogen freilich ziemlich abseitig erscheint. Er schrieb sich William S.

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Die beiden Freunde haben mehrfach mitgeholfen. In seinem neuen Buch erzählt Bill Bryson die grandiose Geschichte des…. Naked Click at this page erschien Hauptseite Source Zufälliger Artikel. Aus dem Englischen von Michael Kellner. Schwankend zielt er auf seine Frau. Burroughs finanzierte seinen https://jwcc2010.se/serien-stream-illegal/ann-zacharias-nackt.php Drogenkonsum damals bereits mit Dealerei.

During , Burroughs was at a loose end. Due to legal problems, he was unable to live in the cities toward which he was most inclined.

When Ginsberg refused his romantic advances, [42] Burroughs went to Rome to meet Alan Ansen on a vacation financed from his parents' continuing support.

He found Rome and Ansen's company dreary and, inspired by Paul Bowles ' fiction, he decided to head for the Tangier International Zone , [43] where he rented a room and began to write a large body of text that he personally referred to as Interzone.

To Burroughs, all signs directed a return to Tangier, a city where drugs were freely available and where financial support from his family would continue.

He realized that in the Moroccan culture he had found an environment that synchronized with his temperament and afforded no hindrances to pursuing his interests and indulging in his chosen activities.

He left for Tangier in November and spent the next four years there working on the fiction that would later become Naked Lunch , as well as attempting to write commercial articles about Tangier.

He sent these writings to Ginsberg, his literary agent for Junkie , but none was published until when Interzone , a collection of short stories, was published.

Under the strong influence of a marijuana confection known as majoun and a German-made opioid called Eukodol , Burroughs settled in to write.

Eventually, Ginsberg and Kerouac, who had traveled to Tangier in , helped Burroughs type, edit, and arrange these episodes into Naked Lunch.

Whereas Junkie and Queer were conventional in style, Naked Lunch was his first venture into a nonlinear style. After the publication of Naked Lunch , a book whose creation was to a certain extent the result of a series of contingencies, Burroughs was exposed to Brion Gysin 's cut-up technique at the Beat Hotel in Paris in October He began slicing up phrases and words to create new sentences.

Scenes were slid together with little care for narrative. Perhaps thinking of his crazed physician, Dr. Benway, he described Naked Lunch as a book that could be cut into at any point.

Although not considered science fiction , the book does seem to forecast AIDS , liposuction , and the crack pandemic.

Excerpts from Naked Lunch were first published in the United States in The novel was initially rejected by City Lights Books, the publisher of Ginsberg's Howl ; and Olympia Press publisher Maurice Girodias , who had published English-language novels in France that were controversial for their subjective views of sex and antisocial characters.

Irving Rosenthal , student editor of Chicago Review , a quarterly journal partially subsidized by the university, promised to publish more excerpts from Naked Lunch , but he was fired from his position in after Chicago Daily News columnist Jack Mabley called the first excerpt obscene.

Rosenthal went on to publish more in his newly created literary journal Big Table No. John Ciardi did get a copy and wrote a positive review of the work, prompting a telegram from Allen Ginsberg praising the review.

After the novel was published, it slowly became notorious across Europe and the United States, garnering interest from not just members of the counterculture of the s , but also literary critics such as Mary McCarthy.

Once published in the United States, Naked Lunch was prosecuted as obscene by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, followed by other states.

In , the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court declared the work "not obscene" on the basis of criteria developed largely to defend the book.

The case against Burroughs' novel still stands as the last obscenity trial against a work of literature—that is, a work consisting of words only, and not including illustrations or photographs—prosecuted in the United States.

These novels feature extensive use of the cut-up technique that influenced all of Burroughs' subsequent fiction to a degree. During Burroughs' friendship and artistic collaborations with Brion Gysin and Ian Sommerville , the technique was combined with images, Gysin's paintings, and sound, via Somerville's tape recorders.

The cut-up method, because of its random or mechanical basis for text generation, combined with the possibilities of mixing in text written by other writers, deemphasizes the traditional role of the writer as creator or originator of a string of words, while simultaneously exalting the importance of the writer's sensibility as an editor.

In this sense, the cut-up method may be considered as analogous to the collage method in the visual arts. New restored editions of The Nova Trilogy or Cut-Up Trilogy , edited by Oliver Harris President of the European Beat Studies Network and published in , included notes and materials to reveal the care with which Burroughs used his methods and the complex histories of his manuscripts.

Burroughs moved into a rundown hotel in the Latin Quarter of Paris in when Naked Lunch was still looking for a publisher. Tangier , with its political unrest, and criminals with whom he had become involved, became dangerous to Burroughs.

He left behind a criminal charge which eventually caught up with him in Paris. Paul Lund, a British former career criminal and cigarette smuggler whom Burroughs met in Tangier, was arrested on suspicion of importing narcotics into France.

Lund gave up Burroughs, and evidence implicated Burroughs in the importation of narcotics into France. When the Moroccan authorities forwarded their investigation to French officials, Burroughs faced criminal charges in Paris for conspiracy to import opiates.

It was during this impending case that Maurice Girodias published Naked Lunch ; its appearance helped to get Burroughs a suspended sentence, since a literary career, according to Ted Morgan, is a respected profession in France.

The " Beat Hotel " was a typical European-style boarding house hotel, with common toilets on every floor, and a small place for personal cooking in the room.

Life there was documented by the photographer Harold Chapman , who lived in the attic room.

This shabby, inexpensive hotel was populated by Gregory Corso , Ginsberg and Peter Orlovsky for several months after Naked Lunch first appeared.

Burroughs' time at the Beat Hotel was dominated by occult experiments — " mirror-gazing , scrying , trance and telepathy , all fuelled by a wide variety of mind-altering drugs".

The actual process by which Naked Lunch was published was partly a function of its "cut-up" presentation to the printer. Girodias had given Burroughs only ten days to prepare the manuscript for print galleys, and Burroughs sent over the manuscript in pieces, preparing the parts in no particular order.

When it was published in this authentically random manner, Burroughs liked it better than the initial plan. During this time Burroughs found an outlet for material otherwise rendered unpublishable in Jeff Nuttall 's My Own Mag.

Burroughs left Paris for London in to visit Dr. Dent, a well-known English medical doctor who spearheaded a reputedly painless heroin withdrawal treatment using the drug apomorphine.

Burroughs however was convinced. Following his first cure, he wrote a detailed appreciation of apomorphine and other cures, which he submitted to The British Journal of Addiction Vol.

Though he ultimately relapsed, Burroughs ended up working out of London for six years, traveling back to the United States on several occasions, including one time escorting his son to the Lexington Narcotics Farm and Prison after the younger Burroughs had been convicted of prescription fraud in Florida.

In the "Afterword" to the compilation of his son's two previously published novels Speed and Kentucky Ham , Burroughs writes that he thought he had a "small habit" and left London quickly without any narcotics because he suspected the U.

He claims he went through the most excruciating two months of opiate withdrawal while seeing his son through his trial and sentencing, traveling with Billy to Lexington, Kentucky from Miami to ensure that his son entered the hospital that he had once spent time in as a volunteer admission.

Louis, Missouri, taking a large advance from Playboy to write an article about his trip back to St. Louis, one that was eventually published in The Paris Review , after Burroughs refused to alter the style for Playboy' s publishers.

Southern and Burroughs, who had first become acquainted in London, would remain lifelong friends and collaborators. In , Burroughs and Southern unsuccessfully attempted to adapt Naked Lunch for the screen in conjunction with American game-show producer Chuck Barris.

Burroughs supported himself and his addiction by publishing pieces in small literary presses. His avant-garde reputation grew internationally as hippies and college students discovered his earlier works.

He developed a close friendship with Antony Balch and lived with a young hustler named John Brady who continuously brought home young women despite Burroughs' protestations.

In the midst of this personal turmoil, Burroughs managed to complete two works: a novel written in screenplay format, The Last Words of Dutch Schultz ; and the traditional prose-format novel The Wild Boys It was during his time in London that Burroughs began using his " playback " technique in an attempt to place curses on various people and places who had drawn his ire, including the Moka coffee bar [63] [64] and the London HQ of Scientology.

Reverse Thursday. Reason for operation was outrageous and unprovoked discourtesy and poisonous cheesecake. Now to close in on the Moka Bar.

Take pictures. Stand around outside. Let them see me. They are seething around in there Playback would come later with more pictures Playback was carried out a number of times with more pictures.

Their business fell off. They kept shorter and shorter hours. October 30, , the Moka Bar closed.

The location was taken over by the Queen's Snack Bar. In the s, Burroughs joined and then left the Church of Scientology.

In talking about the experience, he claimed that the techniques and philosophy of Scientology helped him and that he felt that further study of Scientology would produce great results.

In , concerned about his friend's well-being, Allen Ginsberg gained for Burroughs a contract to teach creative writing at the City College of New York.

Burroughs successfully withdrew from heroin use and moved to New York. The building fell within New York City rent control policies that made it extremely cheap; it was only about four hundred dollars a month until when the rent control rules changed, doubling the rent overnight.

You were giving out all this energy and nothing was coming back. Grauerholz suggested the idea of reading tours. Grauerholz had managed several rock bands in Kansas and took the lead in booking for Burroughs reading tours that would help support him throughout the next two decades.

It raised his public profile, eventually aiding in his obtaining new publishing contracts. Through Grauerholz, Burroughs became a monthly columnist for the noted popular culture magazine Crawdaddy , for which he interviewed Led Zeppelin 's Jimmy Page in Burroughs decided to relocate back to the United States permanently in Financed by a reclusive acquaintance of Burroughs, the project lost traction after financial problems and creative disagreements between Hopper and Burroughs.

Burroughs senior had not seen his son for over a year and was alarmed at his appearance when Billy arrived at Ginsberg's apartment.

Although Billy had successfully published two short novels in the s, and was deemed by literary critics like Ann Charters as a bona fide "second generation beat writer", [73] his brief marriage to a teenage waitress had disintegrated.

Billy was a constant drinker, and there were long periods when he was out of contact with any of his family or friends. The diagnosis was liver cirrhosis so complete that the only treatment was a rarely performed liver transplant operation.

Fortunately, the University of Colorado Medical Center was one of two places in the nation that performed transplants under the pioneering work of Dr.

Thomas Starzl. Billy underwent the procedure and beat the thirty-percent survival odds. His father spent time in and in Colorado, helping Billy through additional surgeries and complications.

Ted Morgan's biography asserts that their relationship was not spontaneous and lacked real warmth or intimacy.

Allen Ginsberg was supportive to both Burroughs and his son throughout the long period of recovery. Grauerholz helped edit Cities when it was first rejected by Burroughs' long-time editor Dick Seaver at Holt Rinehart, after it was deemed too disjointed.

The novel was written as a straight narrative and then chopped up into a more random pattern, leaving the reader to sort through the characters and events.

This technique differed from the author's earlier cut-up methods, which were accidental from the start. Nevertheless, the novel was reassembled and published, still without a straight linear form, but with fewer breaks in the story.

The trilogy featured time-travel adventures in which Burroughs' narrators rewrote episodes from history to reform mankind.

Novelist and critic Anthony Burgess panned the work in Saturday Review , saying Burroughs was boring readers with repetitive episodes of pederast fantasy and sexual strangulation that lacked any comprehensible world view or theology ; other reviewers, like J.

Ballard , argued that Burroughs was shaping a new literary "mythography". In , Billy Burroughs died in Florida. He had cut off contact with his father several years before, even publishing an article in Esquire magazine claiming his father had poisoned his life and revealing that he had been molested as a fourteen-year-old by one of his father's friends while visiting Tangier.

The liver transplant had not cured his urge to drink, and Billy suffered from serious health complications years after the operation.

After he had stopped taking his transplant rejection drugs , he was found near the side of a Florida highway by a stranger. He died shortly afterward.

Burroughs, by , was once again addicted to heroin. The cheap heroin that was easily purchased outside his door on the Lower East Side "made its way" into his veins, coupled with "gifts" from the overzealous if well-intentioned admirers who frequently visited the Bunker.

Although Burroughs would have episodes of being free from heroin, from this point until his death he was regularly addicted to the drug. He died in on a methadone maintenance program.

Burroughs , James Grauerholz who managed Burroughs' reading tours in the s and s mentions that part of his job was to deal with the "underworld" in each city to secure the author's needed drugs.

Burroughs moved to Lawrence, Kansas in , taking up residence at Learnard Avenue where he would spend the rest of his life.

He once told a Wichita Eagle reporter that he was content to live in Kansas, saying, "The thing I like about Kansas is that it's not nearly as violent, and it's a helluva lot cheaper.

And I can get out in the country and fish and shoot and whatnot. This deal included the publication rights to the unpublished novel Queer.

He attended the induction ceremony in May Lawrence Ferlinghetti remarked the induction of Burroughs into the Academy proved Herbert Marcuse 's point that capitalistic society had a great ability to incorporate its one-time outsiders.

By this point, Burroughs was a counterculture icon. In his final years, he cultivated an entourage of young friends who replaced his aging contemporaries.

He inspired s proto-punk rock band Doctors of Madness. Burroughs and R. A collaboration with musicians Nick Cave and Tom Waits resulted in a collection of short prose, Smack My Crack , later released as a spoken word album in In , with Burroughs' approval, director David Cronenberg adapted Naked Lunch into a feature film, which opened to critical acclaim.

During , Burroughs developed a painting technique whereby he created abstract compositions by placing spray paint cans in front of blank surfaces, and then shooting at the paint cans with a shotgun.

These splattered and shot panels and canvasses were first exhibited in the Tony Shafrazi Gallery in New York City in By this time he had developed a comprehensive visual art practice, using ink, spray paint, collage and unusual things such as mushrooms and plungers to apply the paint.

He created file-folder paintings featuring these mediums as well as "automatic calligraphy" inspired by Brion Gysin. He originally used the folders to mix pigments before observing that they could be viewed as art in themselves.

He also used many of these painted folders to store manuscripts and correspondence in his personal archive [80] Until his last years, he prolifically created visual art.

So he decides to shoot up heroin and he takes out this utility belt full of syringes. Huge, old-fashioned ones from the '50s or something.

Now, I have no idea how an 80 year old guy finds a vein, but he knew what he was doing. So we're all laying around high and stuff and then I notice in the pile of mail on the coffee table that there's a letter from the White House.

I said 'Hey, this looks important. I said 'Wow, do you have any idea how big this is!? Who's president nowadays? He didn't even know who our current president was.

In , Burroughs was honored with a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. In June , Burroughs underwent triple bypass surgery.

He became a member of a chaos magic organization, the Illuminates of Thanateros , in The only newspaper columnist Burroughs admired was the right-wing opinion shaper for the William Randolph Hearst newspaper chain, Westbrook Pegler.

According to his biographer Ted Morgan, his philosophy for living one's life was to adhere to a laissez-faire path, one without encumbrances—in essence a credo shared with the capitalist business world.

In he enrolled in Mexico City College under the GI Bill , which paid for part of his tuition and books and provided him with a seventy-five-dollar-per-month stipend.

He maintained, "I always say, keep your snout in the public trough. Burroughs was a gun enthusiast and owned several shotguns , a Colt.

Sonic Youth vocalist Thurston Moore recounted meeting Burroughs: "he had a number of Guns and Ammo magazines laying about, and he was only very interested in talking about shooting and knifing I asked him if he had a Beretta and he said: 'Ah, that's a ladies' pocket-purse gun.

I like guns that shoot and knives that cut. Thompson gave him a one of a kind. Burroughs had a longstanding preoccupation with magic and the occult , dating from his earliest childhood, and was insistent throughout his life that we live in a "magical universe".

In the magical universe there are no coincidences and there are no accidents. Nothing happens unless someone wills it to happen. The dogma of science is that the will cannot possibly affect external forces, and I think that's just ridiculous.

It's as bad as the church. My viewpoint is the exact contrary of the scientific viewpoint. I believe that if you run into somebody in the street it's for a reason.

Among primitive people they say that if someone was bitten by a snake he was murdered. I believe that. Since the word "magic" tends to cause confused thinking, I would like to say exactly what I mean by "magic" and the magical interpretation of so-called reality.

The underlying assumption of magic is the assertion of "will" as the primary moving force in this universe - the deep conviction that nothing happens unless somebody or some being wills it to happen.

To me this has always seemed self evident From the viewpoint of magic, no death, no illness, no misfortune, accident, war or riot is accidental.

There are no accidents in the world of magic. This was no idle passing interest — Burroughs also actively practiced magic in his everyday life: seeking out mystical visions through practices like scrying , [94] [95] [56] taking measures to protect himself from possession , [96] [97] [98] [39] and attempting to lay curses on those who had crossed him.

Biographer Ted Morgan has argued that: "As the single most important thing about Graham Greene was his viewpoint as a lapsed Catholic, the single most important thing about Burroughs was his belief in the magical universe.

The same impulse that led him to put out curses was, as he saw it, the source of his writing To Burroughs behind everyday reality there was the reality of the spirit world, of psychic visitations, of curses, of possession and phantom beings.

Burroughs was unwavering in his insistence that his writing itself had a magical purpose. Burroughs was adamant that the technique had a magical function, stating "the cut ups are not for artistic purposes".

I would say that my most interesting experience with the earlier techniques was the realization that when you make cut-ups you do not get simply random juxtapositions of words, that they do mean something, and often that these meanings refer to some future event.

I've made many cut-ups and then later recognized that the cut-up referred to something that I read later in a newspaper or a book, or something that happened Perhaps events are pre-written and pre-recorded and when you cut word lines the future leaks out.

In the final decade of his life, Burroughs became heavily involved in the chaos magic movement.

Burroughs' magical techniques — the cut-up, playback , etc. Our longtime friend, Douglas Grant, was a prime mover.

Burroughs died August 2, in Lawrence, Kansas from complications of a heart attack he had suffered the previous day. Louis, Missouri, [] with a marker bearing his full name and the epitaph "American Writer".

Since , several posthumous collections of Burroughs' work have been published. A few months after his death, a collection of writings spanning his entire career, Word Virus , was published according to the book's introduction, Burroughs himself approved its contents prior to his death.

A collection of journal entries written during the final months of Burroughs' life was published as the book Last Words in Edited by Oliver Harris, the book contains transcriptions of journal entries made by Burroughs during the time of composing Queer and The Yage Letters , with cover art and review information.

In addition, restored editions of numerous texts have been published in recent years, all containing additional material and essays on the works.

Burroughs' major works can be divided into four different periods. The dates refer to the time of writing, not publication, which in some cases was not until decades later:.

Burroughs also produced numerous essays and a large body of autobiographical material, including a book with a detailed account of his own dreams My Education: A Book of Dreams.

Several literary critics treated Burroughs' work harshly. For example, Anatole Broyard and Philip Toynbee wrote devastating reviews of some of his most important books.

In a short essay entitled "A Review of the Reviewers", Burroughs answers his critics in this way:.

Critics constantly complain that writers are lacking in standards, yet they themselves seem to have no standards other than personal prejudice for literary criticism.

Matthew Arnold set up three criteria for criticism: 1. What is the writer trying to do? How well does he succeed in doing it?

Does the work exhibit "high seriousness"? That is, does it touch on basic issues of good and evil, life and death and the human condition.

I would also apply a fourth criterion Write about what you know. More writers fail because they try to write about things they don't know than for any other reason.

Burroughs clearly indicates here that he prefers to be evaluated against such criteria over being reviewed based on the reviewer's personal reactions to a certain book.

Always a contradictory figure, Burroughs nevertheless criticized Anatole Broyard for reading authorial intent into his works where there is none, which sets him at odds both with New Criticism and the old school as represented by Matthew Arnold.

Burroughs used photography extensively throughout his career, both as a recording medium in planning his writings, and as a significant dimension of his own artistic practice, in which photographs and other images feature as significant elements in cut-ups.

With Ian Sommerville, he experimented with photography's potential as a form of memory-device, photographing and rephotographing his own pictures in increasingly complex time-image arrangements.

Burroughs is often called one of the greatest and most influential writers of the 20th century, most notably by Norman Mailer whose quote on Burroughs, "The only American novelist living today who may conceivably be possessed by genius", appears on many Burroughs publications.

Others consider his concepts and attitude more influential than his prose. Prominent admirers of Burroughs' work have included British critic and biographer Peter Ackroyd , the rock critic Lester Bangs , the philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the authors J.

Burroughs had an influence on the German writer Carl Weissner , who in addition to being his German translator was a novelist in his own right and frequently wrote cut-up texts in a manner reminiscent of Burroughs.

Burroughs continues to be named as an influence by contemporary writers of fiction. Both the New Wave and, especially, the cyberpunk schools of science fiction are indebted to him.

Admirers from the late s—early s milieu of this subgenre include William Gibson and John Shirley , to name only two. First published in , the British slipstream fiction magazine Interzone which later evolved into a more traditional science fiction magazine paid tribute to him with its choice of name.

Drugs, homosexuality, and death, common among Burroughs' themes, have been taken up by Dennis Cooper , of whom Burroughs said, "Dennis Cooper, God help him, is a born writer".

Splatterpunk writer Poppy Z. Brite has frequently referenced this aspect of Burroughs' work. Burroughs' writing continues to be referenced years after his death; for example, a November episode of the TV series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation included an evil character named Dr.

Benway named for an amoral physician who appears in a number of Burroughs' works. This is an echo of the hospital scene in the movie Repo Man , made during Burroughs' life-time, in which both Dr.

Benway and Mr. Lee a Burroughs pen name are paged. Burroughs had an impact on twentieth-century esotericism and occultism as well, most notably through disciples like Peter Lamborn Wilson and Genesis P-Orridge.

Burroughs is also cited by Robert Anton Wilson as the first person to notice the " 23 Enigma ":.

I first heard of the 23 Enigma from William S. Burroughs, author of Naked Lunch, Nova Express, etc. According to Burroughs, he had known a certain Captain Clark, around in Tangier, who once bragged that he had been sailing 23 years without an accident.

That very day, Clark's ship had an accident that killed him and everybody else aboard. Furthermore, while Burroughs was thinking about this crude example of the irony of the gods that evening, a bulletin on the radio announced the crash of an airliner in Florida, USA.

The pilot was another Captain Clark and the flight was Flight Some research [] suggests that Burroughs is arguably the progenitor of the phenomenon , a belief of New Age Mayanism that an apocalyptic shift in human consciousness would occur at the end of the Mayan Long Count calendar in Although never directly focusing on the year himself, Burroughs had an influence on early proponents such as Terence McKenna and Jose Argüelles , and as well had written about an apocalyptic shift of human consciousness at the end of the Long Count as early as 's The Exterminator.

Burroughs appears on the cover of The Beatles ' eighth studio album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

He is featured in a spoken word piece entitled "Sharkey's Night" on Laurie Anderson's album Mister Heartbreak , but the longer version of this track, with additional dialogue from Burroughs, was released only on a promotional 4-track 12" Ep Warner Bros PRO-A In addition, Burroughs provided vocal samples for the soundtrack of Anderson's concert film , Home of the Brave , and made a cameo appearance in it.

Bill Laswell 's Material collaborated with Burroughs to produce the album Seven Souls , wherein Burroughs recites passages from his book The Western Lands to musical accompaniment.

The album was reissued in with 3 bonus remixes. In , an additional unreleased six remixes plus one previously released were introduced on the album The Road To The Western Lands.

Spring Heel Jack 's remix of the track '"The Road to the Western Lands" from this album was also included on their Oddities album from In , Island Records released Dead City Radio , a collection of readings set to a broad range of musical compositions.

The remastered edition of Sonic Youth's album Goo includes a longer version of "Dr. Benway's House", which had appeared, in shorter form, on Dead City Radio.

The single featured cover art by Burroughs and a remix of the song dubbed the "W. Burroughs also made an appearance in the video for "Just One Fix".

The same year he also recorded the EP The "Priest" They Called Him ; Burroughs reads the short story of the same name , while Kurt Cobain creates layers of guitar feedback and distortion.

Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic is featured on the cover as the titular "Priest". Burroughs' poem "A Thanksgiving Prayer", as read by Sgt.

In Burroughs worked with The Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy on Spare Ass Annie and Other Tales , with the duo providing musical background and accompaniment to Burroughs' spoken readings from several of his books.

Burroughs appears on two songs from Technodon , the reunion album by the Japanese electronic group Yellow Magic Orchestra.

The opening track, "Be a Superman", begins with a sample of Burroughs proclaiming, "Be a man! Be a human animal Be a superman.

Burroughs recites the lyrics of R. Burroughs appears near the end of U2 's music video " Last Night on Earth ", pushing a shopping cart with a large spotlight positioned inside it.

The video ends with a close up of his eyes. Burroughs is featured on the compilation tribute album, Stoned Immaculate , on a track that pairs Jim Morrison yelping and groaning with Burroughs reading Morrison's poetry.

The music was recorded by the surviving Doors members in specifically for this album. Numerous bands have found their names in Burroughs' work.

The most widely known of these is Steely Dan , a group named after a dildo in Naked Lunch. Alt-country band Clem Snide is named for a Burroughs character.

Thin White Rope took their name from Burroughs' euphemism for ejaculation. The American extreme metal band Success Will Write Apocalypse Across the Sky took their name from the text "Apocalypse", [] in which Burroughs describes "art and creative expression taking a literal and physical form".

In , an abbreviated—77 minutes as opposed to the original's minutes—version of Benjamin Christensen 's film Häxan was released, subtitled Witchcraft Through The Ages.

This version, produced by Antony Balch , featured an eclectic jazz score by Daniel Humair and expressionist narration by Burroughs.

Burroughs narrated part of the documentary Shamans of the Blind Country by anthropologist and filmmaker Michael Oppitz.

In director Howard Brookner released Burroughs: the Movie. The film is perhaps the definitive account of Burroughs' life, and Brookner and Burroughs maintained a very close collaboration during the shooting process.

Burroughs subsequently made cameo appearances in a number of other films and videos, such as David Blair 's Wax or the Discovery of Television Among the Bees , an elliptic story about the first Gulf War in which Burroughs plays a beekeeper, and Decoder by Klaus Maeck.

He also appears briefly at the beginning of Van Sant's Even Cowgirls Get the Blues based on the Tom Robbins novel , in which he is seen crossing a city street; as the noise of the city rises around him he pauses in the middle of the intersection and speaks the single word "ominous".

Burroughs was portrayed by Kiefer Sutherland in the film Beat , written and directed by Gary Walkow. Loosely biographical, the plot involves a car trip to Mexico City with Vollmer, Kerouac, Ginsberg, and Lucien Carr, and includes a scene of Vollmer's shooting.

Near the end of his life, recordings of Burroughs reading his short stories "A Junky's Christmas" and "Ah Pook Is Here" were used on the soundtracks of two highly acclaimed animated films.

Burroughs on the Road. A documentary, William S. Good Will Hunting released in December was dedicated to Burroughs, as well as Ginsberg, who died four months earlier.

Ajouter une photo. Burroughs Note moyenne 3. Leur fils William S. Burroughs Jr. Il choisit la fuite. Ajouter une citation.

Le Podcasts 3 Voir tous. Citations et extraits Voir plus Ajouter une citation. Signaler ce contenu Voir la page de la citation.

Le festin nu de William S. Je cherche la veine sous la crasse de mon pied nu. Nul ne le sait. Junky de William S.

Burroughs La came prend tout et n'apporte rien, sinon une assurance contre les douleurs du manque. La Machine molle.

Le Tiquet qui explosa. Nova express de William S. Burroughs Bouddha? Aux Indes, ils ont pas la notion du temps, le Camelot a des fois un mois de retard et plus Ils ont pas de classe, quoi Tu veux rire ou quoi?

Gus saute par-dessus son comptoir. Ramasse tes sourates et taille la route.

Burroughs is also cited by Robert Anton Wilson as the first person to notice the fit im 23 Enigma ":. Burroughs, quoted in Morgan, Ted Burroughs, Sr. Le Tiquet qui explosa. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, Kansasafter suffering a heart attack in She made her rolf castell to New York City, and eventually divorced Burroughs, although they remained friends for many years.

William S Burroughs Inhaltsverzeichnis

Ein Mittel, dieser linearen, rationalen Sprache zu entkommen, war für Burroughs die cut-up-Methode, die obendrein die Chance bot, durch zufälliges Collagieren von Textteilen read more Assoziationen zu finden und check this out Sinnebenen aufzudecken. Manuskriptseiten wurden in kleine Zettel zerschnitten und ohne genauen Plan neu angeordnet. Der Anfang dort war schwierig für Joan - ihr geliebtes Benzedrin war einfach nicht please click for source bekommen. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Daraus entstand eine assoziative Erzählstruktur, die Burroughs in späteren Romanen weiter entwickelte. Es entstanden viele Tonaufzeichnungen seiner Werke read more Gespräche. william s burroughs

They would drive from Boston to New York in a reckless fashion. Once, Stern scared Burroughs so badly that he asked to be let out of the vehicle.

It was enough to keep him going, and indeed it guaranteed his survival for the next twenty-five years, arriving with welcome regularity. The allowance was a ticket to freedom; it allowed him to live where he wanted to and to forgo employment.

Burroughs' parents sold the rights to his grandfather's invention and had no share in the Burroughs Corporation. After Burroughs graduated from Harvard, his formal education ended, except for brief flirtations with graduate study of anthropology at Columbia and medicine in Vienna, Austria.

He traveled to Europe and became involved in Austrian and Hungarian Weimar -era LGBT culture ; he picked up young men in steam baths in Vienna and moved in a circle of exiles, homosexuals, and runaways.

She made her way to New York City, and eventually divorced Burroughs, although they remained friends for many years.

In , his mental health became a concern for his parents, especially after he deliberately severed the last joint of his left little finger at the knuckle to impress a man with whom he was infatuated.

Burroughs enlisted in the U. But when he was classified as a 1-A Infantry, not an officer, he became dejected. After being evaluated by a family friend, who was also a neurologist at a psychiatric treatment center, Burroughs waited five months in limbo at Jefferson Barracks outside St.

Louis before being discharged. During that time he met a Chicago soldier also awaiting release, and once Burroughs was free, he moved to Chicago and held a variety of jobs, including one as an exterminator.

When two of his friends from St. Burroughs and Kerouac got into trouble with the law for failing to report a murder involving Lucien Carr , who had killed David Kammerer in a confrontation over Kammerer's incessant and unwanted advances.

The two fledgling authors were unable to get it published, but the manuscript was eventually published in November by Grove Press and Penguin Books.

During this time, Burroughs began using morphine and became addicted. He eventually sold heroin in Greenwich Village to support his habit.

Vollmer also became an addict, but her drug of choice was Benzedrine , an amphetamine sold over the counter at that time.

Because of her addiction and social circle, her husband immediately divorced her after returning from the war.

With urging from Allen Ginsberg , and also perhaps Kerouac, Burroughs became intellectually and emotionally linked with Vollmer and by the summer of had moved in with Vollmer and her daughter.

In spring , Burroughs was arrested for forging a narcotics prescription. Vollmer asked her psychiatrist, a Dr.

Wollberg, to sign a surety bond for Burroughs' release. As part of his release, Burroughs returned to St.

Louis under his parents' care, after which he left for Mexico to get a divorce from Ilse Klapper. Meanwhile, Vollmer's addiction led to a temporary psychosis that resulted in her admission to Bellevue Hospital , which endangered the custody of her child.

Upon hearing this, Burroughs immediately returned to New York City to gain her release, asking her to marry him. Their marriage was never formalized, but she lived as his common-law wife.

They returned to St. Louis to visit Burroughs' parents and then moved with her daughter to Texas. Their son, William S.

The family moved briefly to New Orleans in Burroughs fled to Mexico to escape possible detention in Louisiana's Angola state prison. Vollmer and their children followed him.

Burroughs planned to stay in Mexico for at least five years, the length of his charge's statute of limitations. Burroughs also attended classes at the Mexico City College in studying Spanish, as well as "Mexican picture writing" codices and the Mayan language with R.

Their life in Mexico was by all accounts an unhappy one. Burroughs shot Vollmer in the head, killing her almost immediately.

Soon after the incident, Burroughs changed his account, claiming that he had dropped his gun and it had accidentally fired. Vollmer's daughter, Julie Adams, went to live with her grandmother, and William S.

Louis to live with his grandparents. Burroughs reported every Monday morning to the jail in Mexico City while his prominent Mexican attorney worked to resolve the case.

According to James Grauerholz , two witnesses had agreed to testify that the gun had fired accidentally while he was checking to see if it was loaded, with ballistics experts bribed to support this story.

Upon Burroughs' attorney fleeing Mexico in light of his own legal problems, Burroughs decided, according to Ted Morgan , to "skip" and return to the United States.

He was convicted in absentia of homicide and was given a two-year suspended sentence. Although Burroughs was writing before the shooting of Joan Vollmer, this event marked him and, biographers argue, his work for the rest of his life.

What do you remember of us? In , a re-edited version, The Yage Letters Redux , showed that the letters were largely fictionalised from Burroughs' notes.

Burroughs described Vollmer's death as a pivotal event in his life, and one which provoked his writing by exposing him to the risk of possession by a malevolent entity he called "the Ugly Spirit":.

I am forced to the appalling conclusion that I would never have become a writer but for Joan's death, and to a realization of the extent to which this event has motivated and formulated my writing.

I live with the constant threat of possession, and a constant need to escape from possession, from Control.

So the death of Joan brought me in contact with the invader, the Ugly Spirit, and maneuvered me into a life long struggle, in which I have had no choice except to write my way out.

As Burroughs makes clear, he meant this reference to "possession" to be taken absolutely literally, stating: "My concept of possession is closer to the medieval model than to modern psychological explanations I mean a definite possessing entity.

Ugly evil. The ugly American", and took part in a shamanic ceremony with the explicit aim of exorcising the Ugly Spirit.

Oliver Harris has questioned Burroughs' claim that Vollmer's death catalysed his writing, highlighting the importance for Queer of Burroughs' traumatic relationship with the boyfriend fictionalized in the story as Eugene Allerton, rather than the shooting of Vollmer.

In any case, he had begun to write in Burroughs and Kerouac collaborated on And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks , a mystery novel loosely based on the Carr—Kammerer situation and that at the time remained unpublished.

Years later, in the documentary What Happened to Kerouac? An excerpt of this work, in which Burroughs and Kerouac wrote alternating chapters, was finally published in Word Virus , [40] a compendium of William Burroughs' writing that was published by his biographer after his death in Before killing Vollmer, Burroughs had largely completed his first novel, Junkie , which was written at the urging of Allen Ginsberg , who was instrumental in getting the work published, even as a cheap mass-market paperback.

During , Burroughs was at a loose end. Due to legal problems, he was unable to live in the cities toward which he was most inclined.

When Ginsberg refused his romantic advances, [42] Burroughs went to Rome to meet Alan Ansen on a vacation financed from his parents' continuing support.

He found Rome and Ansen's company dreary and, inspired by Paul Bowles ' fiction, he decided to head for the Tangier International Zone , [43] where he rented a room and began to write a large body of text that he personally referred to as Interzone.

To Burroughs, all signs directed a return to Tangier, a city where drugs were freely available and where financial support from his family would continue.

He realized that in the Moroccan culture he had found an environment that synchronized with his temperament and afforded no hindrances to pursuing his interests and indulging in his chosen activities.

He left for Tangier in November and spent the next four years there working on the fiction that would later become Naked Lunch , as well as attempting to write commercial articles about Tangier.

He sent these writings to Ginsberg, his literary agent for Junkie , but none was published until when Interzone , a collection of short stories, was published.

Under the strong influence of a marijuana confection known as majoun and a German-made opioid called Eukodol , Burroughs settled in to write.

Eventually, Ginsberg and Kerouac, who had traveled to Tangier in , helped Burroughs type, edit, and arrange these episodes into Naked Lunch.

Whereas Junkie and Queer were conventional in style, Naked Lunch was his first venture into a nonlinear style. After the publication of Naked Lunch , a book whose creation was to a certain extent the result of a series of contingencies, Burroughs was exposed to Brion Gysin 's cut-up technique at the Beat Hotel in Paris in October He began slicing up phrases and words to create new sentences.

Scenes were slid together with little care for narrative. Perhaps thinking of his crazed physician, Dr. Benway, he described Naked Lunch as a book that could be cut into at any point.

Although not considered science fiction , the book does seem to forecast AIDS , liposuction , and the crack pandemic.

Excerpts from Naked Lunch were first published in the United States in The novel was initially rejected by City Lights Books, the publisher of Ginsberg's Howl ; and Olympia Press publisher Maurice Girodias , who had published English-language novels in France that were controversial for their subjective views of sex and antisocial characters.

Irving Rosenthal , student editor of Chicago Review , a quarterly journal partially subsidized by the university, promised to publish more excerpts from Naked Lunch , but he was fired from his position in after Chicago Daily News columnist Jack Mabley called the first excerpt obscene.

Rosenthal went on to publish more in his newly created literary journal Big Table No. John Ciardi did get a copy and wrote a positive review of the work, prompting a telegram from Allen Ginsberg praising the review.

After the novel was published, it slowly became notorious across Europe and the United States, garnering interest from not just members of the counterculture of the s , but also literary critics such as Mary McCarthy.

Once published in the United States, Naked Lunch was prosecuted as obscene by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, followed by other states.

In , the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court declared the work "not obscene" on the basis of criteria developed largely to defend the book.

The case against Burroughs' novel still stands as the last obscenity trial against a work of literature—that is, a work consisting of words only, and not including illustrations or photographs—prosecuted in the United States.

These novels feature extensive use of the cut-up technique that influenced all of Burroughs' subsequent fiction to a degree.

During Burroughs' friendship and artistic collaborations with Brion Gysin and Ian Sommerville , the technique was combined with images, Gysin's paintings, and sound, via Somerville's tape recorders.

The cut-up method, because of its random or mechanical basis for text generation, combined with the possibilities of mixing in text written by other writers, deemphasizes the traditional role of the writer as creator or originator of a string of words, while simultaneously exalting the importance of the writer's sensibility as an editor.

In this sense, the cut-up method may be considered as analogous to the collage method in the visual arts. New restored editions of The Nova Trilogy or Cut-Up Trilogy , edited by Oliver Harris President of the European Beat Studies Network and published in , included notes and materials to reveal the care with which Burroughs used his methods and the complex histories of his manuscripts.

Burroughs moved into a rundown hotel in the Latin Quarter of Paris in when Naked Lunch was still looking for a publisher.

Tangier , with its political unrest, and criminals with whom he had become involved, became dangerous to Burroughs. He left behind a criminal charge which eventually caught up with him in Paris.

Paul Lund, a British former career criminal and cigarette smuggler whom Burroughs met in Tangier, was arrested on suspicion of importing narcotics into France.

Lund gave up Burroughs, and evidence implicated Burroughs in the importation of narcotics into France. When the Moroccan authorities forwarded their investigation to French officials, Burroughs faced criminal charges in Paris for conspiracy to import opiates.

It was during this impending case that Maurice Girodias published Naked Lunch ; its appearance helped to get Burroughs a suspended sentence, since a literary career, according to Ted Morgan, is a respected profession in France.

The " Beat Hotel " was a typical European-style boarding house hotel, with common toilets on every floor, and a small place for personal cooking in the room.

Life there was documented by the photographer Harold Chapman , who lived in the attic room. This shabby, inexpensive hotel was populated by Gregory Corso , Ginsberg and Peter Orlovsky for several months after Naked Lunch first appeared.

Burroughs' time at the Beat Hotel was dominated by occult experiments — " mirror-gazing , scrying , trance and telepathy , all fuelled by a wide variety of mind-altering drugs".

The actual process by which Naked Lunch was published was partly a function of its "cut-up" presentation to the printer.

Girodias had given Burroughs only ten days to prepare the manuscript for print galleys, and Burroughs sent over the manuscript in pieces, preparing the parts in no particular order.

When it was published in this authentically random manner, Burroughs liked it better than the initial plan. During this time Burroughs found an outlet for material otherwise rendered unpublishable in Jeff Nuttall 's My Own Mag.

Burroughs left Paris for London in to visit Dr. Dent, a well-known English medical doctor who spearheaded a reputedly painless heroin withdrawal treatment using the drug apomorphine.

Burroughs however was convinced. Following his first cure, he wrote a detailed appreciation of apomorphine and other cures, which he submitted to The British Journal of Addiction Vol.

Though he ultimately relapsed, Burroughs ended up working out of London for six years, traveling back to the United States on several occasions, including one time escorting his son to the Lexington Narcotics Farm and Prison after the younger Burroughs had been convicted of prescription fraud in Florida.

In the "Afterword" to the compilation of his son's two previously published novels Speed and Kentucky Ham , Burroughs writes that he thought he had a "small habit" and left London quickly without any narcotics because he suspected the U.

He claims he went through the most excruciating two months of opiate withdrawal while seeing his son through his trial and sentencing, traveling with Billy to Lexington, Kentucky from Miami to ensure that his son entered the hospital that he had once spent time in as a volunteer admission.

Louis, Missouri, taking a large advance from Playboy to write an article about his trip back to St. Louis, one that was eventually published in The Paris Review , after Burroughs refused to alter the style for Playboy' s publishers.

Southern and Burroughs, who had first become acquainted in London, would remain lifelong friends and collaborators. In , Burroughs and Southern unsuccessfully attempted to adapt Naked Lunch for the screen in conjunction with American game-show producer Chuck Barris.

Burroughs supported himself and his addiction by publishing pieces in small literary presses. His avant-garde reputation grew internationally as hippies and college students discovered his earlier works.

He developed a close friendship with Antony Balch and lived with a young hustler named John Brady who continuously brought home young women despite Burroughs' protestations.

In the midst of this personal turmoil, Burroughs managed to complete two works: a novel written in screenplay format, The Last Words of Dutch Schultz ; and the traditional prose-format novel The Wild Boys It was during his time in London that Burroughs began using his " playback " technique in an attempt to place curses on various people and places who had drawn his ire, including the Moka coffee bar [63] [64] and the London HQ of Scientology.

Reverse Thursday. Reason for operation was outrageous and unprovoked discourtesy and poisonous cheesecake.

Now to close in on the Moka Bar. Take pictures. Stand around outside. Let them see me. They are seething around in there Playback would come later with more pictures Playback was carried out a number of times with more pictures.

Their business fell off. They kept shorter and shorter hours. October 30, , the Moka Bar closed. The location was taken over by the Queen's Snack Bar.

In the s, Burroughs joined and then left the Church of Scientology. In talking about the experience, he claimed that the techniques and philosophy of Scientology helped him and that he felt that further study of Scientology would produce great results.

In , concerned about his friend's well-being, Allen Ginsberg gained for Burroughs a contract to teach creative writing at the City College of New York.

Burroughs successfully withdrew from heroin use and moved to New York. The building fell within New York City rent control policies that made it extremely cheap; it was only about four hundred dollars a month until when the rent control rules changed, doubling the rent overnight.

You were giving out all this energy and nothing was coming back. Grauerholz suggested the idea of reading tours. Grauerholz had managed several rock bands in Kansas and took the lead in booking for Burroughs reading tours that would help support him throughout the next two decades.

It raised his public profile, eventually aiding in his obtaining new publishing contracts. Through Grauerholz, Burroughs became a monthly columnist for the noted popular culture magazine Crawdaddy , for which he interviewed Led Zeppelin 's Jimmy Page in Burroughs decided to relocate back to the United States permanently in Financed by a reclusive acquaintance of Burroughs, the project lost traction after financial problems and creative disagreements between Hopper and Burroughs.

Burroughs senior had not seen his son for over a year and was alarmed at his appearance when Billy arrived at Ginsberg's apartment.

Although Billy had successfully published two short novels in the s, and was deemed by literary critics like Ann Charters as a bona fide "second generation beat writer", [73] his brief marriage to a teenage waitress had disintegrated.

Billy was a constant drinker, and there were long periods when he was out of contact with any of his family or friends. The diagnosis was liver cirrhosis so complete that the only treatment was a rarely performed liver transplant operation.

Fortunately, the University of Colorado Medical Center was one of two places in the nation that performed transplants under the pioneering work of Dr.

Thomas Starzl. Billy underwent the procedure and beat the thirty-percent survival odds. His father spent time in and in Colorado, helping Billy through additional surgeries and complications.

Ted Morgan's biography asserts that their relationship was not spontaneous and lacked real warmth or intimacy.

Allen Ginsberg was supportive to both Burroughs and his son throughout the long period of recovery. Grauerholz helped edit Cities when it was first rejected by Burroughs' long-time editor Dick Seaver at Holt Rinehart, after it was deemed too disjointed.

The novel was written as a straight narrative and then chopped up into a more random pattern, leaving the reader to sort through the characters and events.

This technique differed from the author's earlier cut-up methods, which were accidental from the start. Nevertheless, the novel was reassembled and published, still without a straight linear form, but with fewer breaks in the story.

The trilogy featured time-travel adventures in which Burroughs' narrators rewrote episodes from history to reform mankind.

Novelist and critic Anthony Burgess panned the work in Saturday Review , saying Burroughs was boring readers with repetitive episodes of pederast fantasy and sexual strangulation that lacked any comprehensible world view or theology ; other reviewers, like J.

Ballard , argued that Burroughs was shaping a new literary "mythography". In , Billy Burroughs died in Florida. He had cut off contact with his father several years before, even publishing an article in Esquire magazine claiming his father had poisoned his life and revealing that he had been molested as a fourteen-year-old by one of his father's friends while visiting Tangier.

The liver transplant had not cured his urge to drink, and Billy suffered from serious health complications years after the operation.

After he had stopped taking his transplant rejection drugs , he was found near the side of a Florida highway by a stranger.

He died shortly afterward. Burroughs, by , was once again addicted to heroin. The cheap heroin that was easily purchased outside his door on the Lower East Side "made its way" into his veins, coupled with "gifts" from the overzealous if well-intentioned admirers who frequently visited the Bunker.

Although Burroughs would have episodes of being free from heroin, from this point until his death he was regularly addicted to the drug.

He died in on a methadone maintenance program. Burroughs , James Grauerholz who managed Burroughs' reading tours in the s and s mentions that part of his job was to deal with the "underworld" in each city to secure the author's needed drugs.

Burroughs moved to Lawrence, Kansas in , taking up residence at Learnard Avenue where he would spend the rest of his life.

He once told a Wichita Eagle reporter that he was content to live in Kansas, saying, "The thing I like about Kansas is that it's not nearly as violent, and it's a helluva lot cheaper.

And I can get out in the country and fish and shoot and whatnot. This deal included the publication rights to the unpublished novel Queer.

He attended the induction ceremony in May Lawrence Ferlinghetti remarked the induction of Burroughs into the Academy proved Herbert Marcuse 's point that capitalistic society had a great ability to incorporate its one-time outsiders.

By this point, Burroughs was a counterculture icon. In his final years, he cultivated an entourage of young friends who replaced his aging contemporaries.

He inspired s proto-punk rock band Doctors of Madness. Burroughs and R. A collaboration with musicians Nick Cave and Tom Waits resulted in a collection of short prose, Smack My Crack , later released as a spoken word album in In , with Burroughs' approval, director David Cronenberg adapted Naked Lunch into a feature film, which opened to critical acclaim.

During , Burroughs developed a painting technique whereby he created abstract compositions by placing spray paint cans in front of blank surfaces, and then shooting at the paint cans with a shotgun.

These splattered and shot panels and canvasses were first exhibited in the Tony Shafrazi Gallery in New York City in By this time he had developed a comprehensive visual art practice, using ink, spray paint, collage and unusual things such as mushrooms and plungers to apply the paint.

He created file-folder paintings featuring these mediums as well as "automatic calligraphy" inspired by Brion Gysin. He originally used the folders to mix pigments before observing that they could be viewed as art in themselves.

He also used many of these painted folders to store manuscripts and correspondence in his personal archive [80] Until his last years, he prolifically created visual art.

So he decides to shoot up heroin and he takes out this utility belt full of syringes. Huge, old-fashioned ones from the '50s or something.

Now, I have no idea how an 80 year old guy finds a vein, but he knew what he was doing. So we're all laying around high and stuff and then I notice in the pile of mail on the coffee table that there's a letter from the White House.

I said 'Hey, this looks important. I said 'Wow, do you have any idea how big this is!? Who's president nowadays? He didn't even know who our current president was.

In , Burroughs was honored with a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. In June , Burroughs underwent triple bypass surgery.

He became a member of a chaos magic organization, the Illuminates of Thanateros , in The only newspaper columnist Burroughs admired was the right-wing opinion shaper for the William Randolph Hearst newspaper chain, Westbrook Pegler.

According to his biographer Ted Morgan, his philosophy for living one's life was to adhere to a laissez-faire path, one without encumbrances—in essence a credo shared with the capitalist business world.

In he enrolled in Mexico City College under the GI Bill , which paid for part of his tuition and books and provided him with a seventy-five-dollar-per-month stipend.

He maintained, "I always say, keep your snout in the public trough. Burroughs was a gun enthusiast and owned several shotguns , a Colt.

Sonic Youth vocalist Thurston Moore recounted meeting Burroughs: "he had a number of Guns and Ammo magazines laying about, and he was only very interested in talking about shooting and knifing I asked him if he had a Beretta and he said: 'Ah, that's a ladies' pocket-purse gun.

I like guns that shoot and knives that cut. Thompson gave him a one of a kind. Burroughs had a longstanding preoccupation with magic and the occult , dating from his earliest childhood, and was insistent throughout his life that we live in a "magical universe".

In the magical universe there are no coincidences and there are no accidents. Nothing happens unless someone wills it to happen.

The dogma of science is that the will cannot possibly affect external forces, and I think that's just ridiculous. It's as bad as the church.

My viewpoint is the exact contrary of the scientific viewpoint. I believe that if you run into somebody in the street it's for a reason.

Among primitive people they say that if someone was bitten by a snake he was murdered. I believe that. Since the word "magic" tends to cause confused thinking, I would like to say exactly what I mean by "magic" and the magical interpretation of so-called reality.

The underlying assumption of magic is the assertion of "will" as the primary moving force in this universe - the deep conviction that nothing happens unless somebody or some being wills it to happen.

To me this has always seemed self evident From the viewpoint of magic, no death, no illness, no misfortune, accident, war or riot is accidental.

There are no accidents in the world of magic. This was no idle passing interest — Burroughs also actively practiced magic in his everyday life: seeking out mystical visions through practices like scrying , [94] [95] [56] taking measures to protect himself from possession , [96] [97] [98] [39] and attempting to lay curses on those who had crossed him.

Biographer Ted Morgan has argued that: "As the single most important thing about Graham Greene was his viewpoint as a lapsed Catholic, the single most important thing about Burroughs was his belief in the magical universe.

The same impulse that led him to put out curses was, as he saw it, the source of his writing To Burroughs behind everyday reality there was the reality of the spirit world, of psychic visitations, of curses, of possession and phantom beings.

Burroughs was unwavering in his insistence that his writing itself had a magical purpose. Burroughs was adamant that the technique had a magical function, stating "the cut ups are not for artistic purposes".

I would say that my most interesting experience with the earlier techniques was the realization that when you make cut-ups you do not get simply random juxtapositions of words, that they do mean something, and often that these meanings refer to some future event.

I've made many cut-ups and then later recognized that the cut-up referred to something that I read later in a newspaper or a book, or something that happened Perhaps events are pre-written and pre-recorded and when you cut word lines the future leaks out.

In the final decade of his life, Burroughs became heavily involved in the chaos magic movement. Burroughs' magical techniques — the cut-up, playback , etc.

Our longtime friend, Douglas Grant, was a prime mover. Burroughs died August 2, in Lawrence, Kansas from complications of a heart attack he had suffered the previous day.

Louis, Missouri, [] with a marker bearing his full name and the epitaph "American Writer". Since , several posthumous collections of Burroughs' work have been published.

A few months after his death, a collection of writings spanning his entire career, Word Virus , was published according to the book's introduction, Burroughs himself approved its contents prior to his death.

A collection of journal entries written during the final months of Burroughs' life was published as the book Last Words in Edited by Oliver Harris, the book contains transcriptions of journal entries made by Burroughs during the time of composing Queer and The Yage Letters , with cover art and review information.

In addition, restored editions of numerous texts have been published in recent years, all containing additional material and essays on the works.

Burroughs' major works can be divided into four different periods. The dates refer to the time of writing, not publication, which in some cases was not until decades later:.

Burroughs also produced numerous essays and a large body of autobiographical material, including a book with a detailed account of his own dreams My Education: A Book of Dreams.

Several literary critics treated Burroughs' work harshly. For example, Anatole Broyard and Philip Toynbee wrote devastating reviews of some of his most important books.

In a short essay entitled "A Review of the Reviewers", Burroughs answers his critics in this way:. Critics constantly complain that writers are lacking in standards, yet they themselves seem to have no standards other than personal prejudice for literary criticism.

Matthew Arnold set up three criteria for criticism: 1. What is the writer trying to do? How well does he succeed in doing it?

Does the work exhibit "high seriousness"? That is, does it touch on basic issues of good and evil, life and death and the human condition.

I would also apply a fourth criterion Write about what you know. More writers fail because they try to write about things they don't know than for any other reason.

Burroughs clearly indicates here that he prefers to be evaluated against such criteria over being reviewed based on the reviewer's personal reactions to a certain book.

Always a contradictory figure, Burroughs nevertheless criticized Anatole Broyard for reading authorial intent into his works where there is none, which sets him at odds both with New Criticism and the old school as represented by Matthew Arnold.

Burroughs used photography extensively throughout his career, both as a recording medium in planning his writings, and as a significant dimension of his own artistic practice, in which photographs and other images feature as significant elements in cut-ups.

With Ian Sommerville, he experimented with photography's potential as a form of memory-device, photographing and rephotographing his own pictures in increasingly complex time-image arrangements.

Burroughs is often called one of the greatest and most influential writers of the 20th century, most notably by Norman Mailer whose quote on Burroughs, "The only American novelist living today who may conceivably be possessed by genius", appears on many Burroughs publications.

Others consider his concepts and attitude more influential than his prose. Prominent admirers of Burroughs' work have included British critic and biographer Peter Ackroyd , the rock critic Lester Bangs , the philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the authors J.

Burroughs had an influence on the German writer Carl Weissner , who in addition to being his German translator was a novelist in his own right and frequently wrote cut-up texts in a manner reminiscent of Burroughs.

Burroughs continues to be named as an influence by contemporary writers of fiction. Both the New Wave and, especially, the cyberpunk schools of science fiction are indebted to him.

Ajouter une photo. Burroughs Note moyenne 3. Leur fils William S. Burroughs Jr. Il choisit la fuite. Ajouter une citation.

Le Podcasts 3 Voir tous. Citations et extraits Voir plus Ajouter une citation. Signaler ce contenu Voir la page de la citation.

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Gus saute par-dessus son comptoir. Ramasse tes sourates et taille la route.

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